Florida Wage Garnishment
A Florida wage garnishment is a tool that enables judgment creditors to intercept a portion of money owed to the judgment debtor by the debtor’s employer. Creditors use writs of garnishments to collect debts owed by third parties to a judgment debtor.
Wage garnishment is a special type of garnishment writ provided by Florida Statutes applicable to a debtor’s earnings. Wages and salary earned for labor constitute a debt an employer owes to an employer debtor. Earnings subject to wage garnishment include salary, hourly wages, bonuses, commissions, and other forms of employee compensation. Payments due to a debtor working as an independent contractor are not subject to continuing wage garnishment.
How Long Do Wage Garnishments Last?
What makes the Florida wage garnishment particularly effective is the continuing application of the writ. A single writ served on the debtor’s employer will garnish all the debtor’s salary and wages as they become payable in the future until the judgment is satisfied or the garnishment is dissolved. Garnishment writs directed at other debts or compensation, such as rents or payments to an independent contractor, apply only to payments due to the debtor on the day the writ is served upon the garnishee. There are no continuing garnishments against any debts other than earnings owed to a judgment debtor.
Garnishment Rules and Procedures
Continuing wage garnishment procedures are regulated by Florida statutes. The garnishment statute requires the garnishing creditor to follow complicated requirements and procedures including several required notices and time deadlines. Garnishment procedures are strictly construed, and the creditor must comply with all procedures to enforce continuing wage garnishment in Florida.
The debtor may file a motion to dissolve a garnishment for any procedural defect in the creditor’s administration of the writ. It is important that creditors and judgment debtors to understand Florida’s detailed garnishment procedures.
A judgment creditor that holds a money judgment may file a Motion for a Continuing Writ of Garnishment. The motion is filed in the same court, and with the same judge, that issued the underlying money judgment. The creditor files the garnishment motion ex-parte, which means without advance notice to the judgment debtor. Upon filing the motion, the judge will ordinarily grant the writ of continuing wage garnishment, and the court then creditor sends the continuing garnishment order to the debtor’s employer.
Once an employer receives the garnishment order the creditor must send the debtor a copy of the court papers including the creditor’s garnishment motion, the court’s garnishment order, and other documents (including a “claim of exemption” form discussed below).
An employer is required to apply a wage garnishment immediately and deduct appropriate portions of the debtor’s earnings. The employer has 20 days to file an answer to the writ and serve a copy of that answer to the creditor and employee.
Head of Household Exemption
Wage garnishment in Florida is not permitted against a debtor who qualifies as the head of household. Head of household law is complex. A debtor who receives notice that his wages have been garnished must affirmatively assert their head-of-household exemption.
An employee debtor can claim a head of household exemption on the standard exemption form provided by the creditor. The debtor mails the exemption form to the court and then waits for the court to schedule a hearing on the head-of-household exemption. A more assertive debtor can file a motion to dissolve the wage garnishment because he is head of household and request an expedited hearing.
Waiver of Head of Household Exemption
Florida statutes provide that a debtor may waive head of household exemption at the beginning of a commercial relationship by signing a waiver form. Many lenders customarily require new credit customers to waive their head of household protection. These waivers are described elsewhere on this website. Borrowers should be aware of the consequences of exposing otherwise exempt wages to garnishments in the event of credit default.
Federal Limits to Garnishment
Debtors who are not head of household, or who have waived their head of household garnishment protection, may have their wages garnished only up to limits allowed by federal consumer law. The Consumer Credit Protection Act limits wage garnishments to no more than the lesser of 25 percent of a debtor’s disposable weekly income or disposable earnings. Disposable earnings mean “take home pay” after legally required deductions such as tax withholding.
Voluntary withholding for retirement accounts, holiday savings account etc. are included in disposable earning. However, federal consumer law permits greater amounts to be garnished to enforce tax debts or court ordered domestic support obligations. There is a 40 percent ceiling for domestic support garnishments. There are different garnishment limits for debts owed to the United States such as delinquent student loans.
What To Do
If you’ve found out that your wages have been garnished–either because your employer told you or because you received documents from the creditor–you must work quickly to claim your exemptions and file a motion to dissolve the writ. It is often a good idea to work on settling the judgment debt at the same time you work to defeat the wage garnishment.
If you want help dealing with your garnishment or want advice on how to best assert your exemptions, give us a call to schedule an appointment.